At the beginning of the supply chain are the natural gas producers who deliver the gas via pipelines and sometimes also by tankers. Some of our gas is produced in Germany, but most of it comes from Norway, Russia and the Netherlands.
The next group of market players are the gas traders. They buy gas quantities on the market, depending on requirements and needs. The market can be Germany, but also the whole of Europe.
Then there are the regulatory authorities who determine the conditions under which gas may be traded and transported in Germany and what charges may be levied. Apart from the national regulator, the Federal Network Agency (BNetzA), there are the regulatory authorities of the individual federal states.
Gas transmission is governed by a number of acts and ordinances, including the German Energy Industry Act and the regulatory framework.
There are two different types of gas network operators: Transmission system operators transport the gas over long distances to the regions, while downstream operators of finely branched pipeline networks take over the gas and distribute it to their customers.
Before the gas reaches the consumer, it can also be stored underground by storage operators who ensure year-round security of supply in Germany.
Finally, the gas reaches you, the consumer, at the end of the gas value chain.
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